WGU Texas, Tarrant County College District Sign Agreement to Make Higher Education More Accessible
Deferred adjudication is a form of probation that allows the charge to be dismissed upon completion of the term. As part of his plea deal, Holmes admitted to assigning deputies to Fiesta during their county work hours, officials said. Sarah Sarder. Sarah Sarder is a graduate of the University of North Texas in Denton, where she received Bachelor's degrees in journalism and political science. She is a North Texas native who previously worked for the Denton Record-Chronicle as a business reporter and spent four years as news reporter and editor at the North Texas Daily.
During the course of my research I discovered that while vehicles have been manufactured and designed here since the late nineteenth century their design genealogy is little understood. I also realized that there are opportunities for the academy to engage in scholarly research into the history of automotive design and it is hoped that this issue of the rmit Design Archives Journal will generate wide interest in the subject. Australia has a highly developed and very active car culture, the realm of museum curators, historians, enthusiasts, collectors, car clubs, car manufacturers and entities such as the racv and Victorian Historic Racing Register who collectively possess a wealth of knowledge, much of it tacit and unrecorded.
The academy, which has hitherto supplied engineers and designers to this industry, but not historians, can play a significant part in the articulation and dissemination of this historical knowledge, and in so doing help to build a scholarly history of Australian automotive design, developing not only research protocols and models but also the next generation of scholars to carry forward the work.
And it is timely that this work is undertaken now, as the industry undergoes its most dramatic restructure for a century and the Australian-made family car becomes a distant memory. Their designers had and continue to have global careers. As we look to how the automobile of this century will respond to new economic, environmental and industrial pressures, it is well to consider the achievements of the past when Australia embraced the possibilities afforded by new automotive technological advances with great success.
Examining how our designers succeeded throughout the twentieth century in a competitive industrial environment so far away from the European and American centres of action may well provide clues to our future success. Harriet Edquist, director. While a great deal has been written about it, a survey of the material relevant to this study shows that little deals with automotive design. Of the many Australian motor body building firms in the early and formative years of the industry only four have had anything published about them and then as company histories.
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Herbert Thomson, steam car phaeton Museum Victoria, Melbourne. Gift of Mrs O Stening, While neither was ultimately successful, both led the way to a body building industry that dominated Australian manufacturing through the s and again in thes. Herbert Thomson began his quest in , establishing a business in Armadale, Victoria, making small steam engines and boilers. He powered his car by a kerosene fired steam boiler. The double compound 4-cylinder condensing engine was his own design and was directly connected to the rear axle by a chain providing a top speed of 20mph and a 50 mile journey.
In he built his first steam engine and fitted it to a boat subsequently used on the Yarra River. Following studies in engineering Thomson set up business and was joined by Edward Holmes. Buoyed with the reception and a first prize, it was decided to take the car to Bathurst, and from there drive back to Melbourne. Thomson Motor Car Company went on to produce 12 steam vehicles, mostly 4-seater hooded-buggies which had.
Two vans were sold to the Post Office for mail delivery and at least one fire engine was built. Despite the Thomson car having an efficient condensing steam engine it could not compete with the petrol engined vehicles that began to arrive in quantity after By the Thomson Motor Car Company had rationalised its business to producing boilers at the Armadale premises and selling imported motor vehicles.
State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. Middle Harley Tarrant, daughter and wife ride in the 2-cylinder 10hp Tarrant car. This was the 6th car produced in c Source: Museum of Victoria, Melbourne. Born in Clunes in Victoria in , Harley Tarrant studied civil engineering and became a surveyor. This page Left The first production Tarrant, but the second car built, featured a modified buggy body produced by Alex Smith. Source: Museum Victoria, Melbourne.
N Darwin Collection. He trained in the furniture trade, became a talented racing cyclist and retired in to work in the Melbourne cycle store. This combination of manufacturing and importing was to establish the Tarrant Motor and Engineering Company as an important motor business. In addition to the Tarrant car the company sold f.
The difficulty for Tarrant was the time it took to build his own cars which was, according to Ross, three to four months. Unlike Thomson, who used the same style for all his vehicles, Tarrant kept abreast of changing trends in design. The bodies for his first two cars were built by Alex Smith who adapted two buggy bodies, one behind the other. Tarrant had initially chosen an oil fueled engine kerosene ,21 either 2 or 4-cylinder, that developed 8 and 14hp. When production of Tarrants stopped around 20 cars had been produced.
Eventually, a large modern factory was built in West Melbourne to meet the demand for T Ford bodies in the early s. The firm was then employing men. A third early manufacturer, Vivian Lewis, was essentially a bicycle manufacturer who ventured into self propelled vehicles in The body building industry While the manufacture of complete cars struggled to get moving in Australia, body building gained a foothold.
As in Europe and America, the Australian car body grew from the coach and carriage trade and as many imported cars came in as a rolling chassis, particularly those purchased by wealthy owners, there was plenty of scope to develop this specialised industry. While the horse drawn coach was mechanically a simple vehicle it did require a degree of engineering that was originally carried out by the blacksmith.
Only the coach painter was able to transfer his skills to automotive body building. All the same, Tarrant, Thomson and Lewis had nothing much to copy when they embarked on their initial designs; there was no special steel, elliptic springs, differential gears or balloon tyres. The solid rubber wheels from buggies and coaches rattled engines to bits on the rough roads causing constant failures.
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They had been produced in timber and closely followed British and French design of the era. The Melbourne Motor Body Co was not the only firm to establish itself on the coach-building trade. Daniel White was a Melbourne coachbuilder who quickly turned to motor bodies. White had argued in the Education Royal Commission of for apprenticeship schooling and was vocal in the cause for tariffs on imported bodies in and Edward Carlton was the body building instructor and he had moved from instruction in coachbuilding to motor body building as the school evolved with the trade.
These came under the heading of phaetons or touring cars. The Australasian Coachbuilder and Wheelwright and its successor The Coach and Motor Builder regularly published drawings and photographs of both coach and motor bodies. Bodybuilders were able to scale up these drawings to full size chalk layouts, usually on the floor of the workshop, The Coach and Motor Builder, 15 October By the Torpedo style body merged with the car bonnet giving the motor car a continuous line from the radiator to the rear.
Under pressure to conserve shipping space the Federal Government introduced a tariff on imported car bodies. In the first year of volume production the Melbourne Motor Body Company was producing some 70 bodies per week utilising a workforce of men. Despite the larger companies building standardised bodies there was little standardisation about them. The pattern was common and the result gave the appearance that each body was the same. A Melbourne company, Hydro Press advertised press capacity using a patented rubber bag and female die method but it was unsuited to high capacity runs.
Generally local panel pressings were small, and large curved items like the cowl were imported with the chassis. It also gave them access to gm technical know how and gm expected the Holden product to conform to their build standards. Wylie subsequently trained the men who would in the s design the two unique Holden body styles, the coupe utility and all-enclosed coupe.
Their export company had established an office in Sydney from November In Ford came to the realisation that the Australian Ford sales lagged behind gm and so dispatched Hubert French to investigate. Trolleys were hand pushed along a simple rail line. The patent is still active today and many station wagons still use this design, GMH Pointers, vol 2 no 3, Each state was building a very different body, and some only had three doors on the tourer instead of four. Tarrants in Victoria struggled on selling other makes. Conclusion As the s grew to a close the Australian automotive industry had shifted into a two-tier structure.
The three American producers, Ford, gm and Chrysler dominated the sector with Australiawide distribution networks. Chrysler ran a similar structure but Ford produced bodies and initally assembled cars only at Geelong. But the Wall Street crash changed everything, and most of the original body. Transcript given to Tom Wylie and held by his son, Don Wylie.
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Following the invention of carburettors, American gasolene Benzine was safer to use and became the accepted motor fuel. Tony Lupton talks to Australian car designer Phillip Zmood about the influences that shaped his career and some of the highlights in his life in car design. When Phillip Zmood was a child, back in the s, packages containing copies of The Saturday Evening Post arrived from America every few months at the family home in Victoria.
Zmood drew houses, made plaster models, thought about the colour and shape in the Norman Rockwell cover illustrations and then he started drawing cars. The cars in the pages of the magazine and the cars in his imagination. By the time he was 13, in , he had drawn his first concept car, an exotic, sporty convertible. It seems the idea may have been planted early that a living could be made from drawing cars. After finishing secondary school, Zmood studied for a Diploma in Industrial Design at rmit. His design for an open sports car that he called the Gannet won the international award and prompted stories in the local newspapers.
Possessing ambition as well as talent, he took his drawing to General Motors Holden and asked for a job. He succeeded eventually. Zmood would ultimately become the first Australian to head the General Motors Holden design studio and is recognised as one of the most influential figures in Australian automotive design.
It was a marvellous example of life imitating art. Regular meetings followed over the ensuing years and while there was still no job they looked at his work and helped keep him supplied with drawing materials and he kept drawing.
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Later on the family had taxis and I used to help Dad who did his own repairs. I enjoyed taking things apart and making mechanical gizmos. After completing his industrial design diploma, Zmood joined gmh in , soon after their new Fishermans Bend technical centre was opened. It was fortuitous timing. When he started in the design studio at gmh, Zmood was literally given a blank canvas. After only a year at Fishermans Bend, Zmood was sent to Detroit for six months special training as part of the gm development program. He spent a month in six gm division design studios, starting in Advanced Design and then moving through Buick, Cadillac, Oldsmobile, Pontiac and Chevrolet.
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He got to drive around in another new hot car every few days. Cars like a convertible Chevrolet Chevelle or an Oldsmobile Toronado, the sporty muscle cars Australians only saw in the movies. He worked with senior designers like Larry Shinoda, who had worked on the Corvette Stingray, had. The experiences kept on coming. In addition to sampling some of the legendary cars of the s, the experience in America exposed Zmood to the most advanced techniques in car design that were about to be introduced to Australia. Back in Australia after his stint in Detroit, Zmood was influenced by the deputy head of design, another American named John Schinella.
He became a role model and mentor with his enthusiasm for integrated design and harmony.
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While gm in Detroit had historically set the Holden design briefs and provided the management and oversight, local designers at gmh had been responsible for the design work on Holden models. There was a belief at gm that eventually Holden would manage all parts of the design and manufacturing process on its own. There was a good culture with the company and unions working together. With development of what was known as the Buick xp project, the wheel had turned full circle and Australian design expertise was being brought directly to Motor City from Melbourne. The Buick xp show car was a breakthrough for gmh.
Having started his career in the era of plaster models, Phillip Zmood has more recently helped usher in the new era of digital design and global manufacturing. This included setting up the first General Motors technical joint venture in China. This survey of current research into the Australian automobile industry focuses on the ways in which women experienced the new technologies of speed and mobility in the early decades of the twentieth century.
It is organised into three themes: women as drivers and mechanics, their opportunities as production workers, and as designers and engineers. Women were already familiar with the independence afforded by the bicycle in the late nineteenth century and turned their attention to the automobile when it appeared around They embraced the new technology primarily as drivers and, to a lesser degree, mechanics and in doing so contributed significantly to the enterprises of nation-building in the early modern period.
As Graeme Davison observed, the motorcar: promised a new era of female independence although. The motoriste, as she sometimes called herself, was a figure of self-conscious emancipation, whose mechanical enthusiasm, zest for speed and power, and sometimes mannish dress, set her apart from her more conventional sisters. Australian women were early participants in this global phenomenon as Australia had begun to develop a local auto industry in the s and had established car clubs and motorsport fixtures by the beginning of the twentieth century.
She also participated in the far more challenging Dunlop Reliability Trial in , from Sydney to Melbourne, in a 6 hp Wolseley and was enthusiastically cheered along the way.
Her feat, which might have been a long-distance world record for a women driver at. If you take care of it it remains true to you and responds to your every wish and whim. But it was too safe. Allen, like other women at the time, preferred something faster and more dashing such as the Studebaker which became her next car. The racv and the Red Cross both organised volunteers to transport wounded soldiers in their motor vehicles, leading to a certain amount of rivalry as to whose group was to meet which ship.
She regularly responded to the summons to meet the hospital ships in her brown Talbot to transport wounded servicemen. During the late s and early s she took part in country reliability trials, time trials, and was a regular speedway racer in Sydney in her supercharged Alfa Romeo. She also owned a Hyper Lea-Francis that she campaigned with other drivers. In October Marion Bell and her year-old daughter left Perth in an Oldsmobile Six on a well-publicised trip that headed north to Port Hedland, Broome and Katherine before turning south east down to Brisbane and Melbourne, then back to Perth via Adelaide by April Photographer: Jean Beatson Top right Kathleen Howell presumed squatting down and putting lengths of matting under front wheels of car,